Observations & Debates

Efforts To Prevent Conflict During Election Period In Indonesia In The Criminology Perspective A La Indonesia

For a country that states it is a country that highly glorifies democratic values, the general election period is a political arena that is always eagerly awaited and has a significant impact. The election period is a period in which a country determines the fate of the country for a certain period of time in the future. The election period itself also occurred in Indonesia. Some even mention that the election period in Indonesia is a time when the people “party” politically, in which the people play an important role in determining the future of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia for the next few years. That is why the election period has such a big impact.

Talking about elections in Indonesia itself, is often accompanied by negative impacts. One of the negative impacts that occurred during the election period was disputes in the community. This dispute itself arose on the basis of differences in views during the election period. The dispute can then turn into a conflict. Not infrequently, these conflicts can occur over a period of time beyond the election period and shift into a criminal act. If this happens, it can also lead to divisions in the community. This is also exacerbated by the phenomenon of polarization in society which is then used by certain individuals to benefit their position during the election period.

In Indonesia, this phenomenon can be seen since the 2014 presidential election. The existence of parties with different political views was the first trigger for conflict during the election period. The conflict was then exacerbated by the spreading of fake news during the election period, both in the real world and in cyberspace. The spread of fake news and hate speech is effective considering the low ability of the Indonesian people to identify fake news. This then creates conflicts that often spill over into the realm of criminal acts. This phenomenon then reoccurred during other election periods in Indonesia, including during the 2016 DKI Jakarta Governor Election (Pilgub) and the 2019 Presidential Election, where there were cases of criminal acts that were based on conflicts during the election period. The existence of these facts, surely becomes a bad record during the implementation of elections in Indonesia. Some of us of course do not want the election period in Indonesia to be a time to break up society in Indonesia. Therefore, an effort is needed in terms of preventing these events from recurring or at least minimizing them in the upcoming election period in Indonesia.

Talking about conflict prevention efforts, there is one science that can be used. That science is criminology. Even though criminology is the study of crime, it can be used in terms of preventing conflict. This is because in criminological theory, a crime can occur as a result of a conflict. Considering that the conflict discussed was a conflict during the election period in Indonesia, it would be better if the conflict was prevented with an Indonesian-style criminological approach. The criminological approach in question is a Sobural approach. Jacobus E. Sahetapy was the first to initiate this approach. The Sobural approach (social, cultural values, and structural factors) itself tries to use cultural perspectives and norms that are appropriate to Indonesian society in analyzing a behavior that can be deemed deviant. So it would be better if this approach was used in answering questions about efforts to prevent and minimize conflict during the election period in Indonesia.

Regarding conflicts during the election period in Indonesia, as previously explained, conflicts during the election period were based on differences in political views and choices. Of course, this difference itself is created by the values held by a person or a group. Given these differences, the potential for conflict arises. Therefore, based on the Sobural approach, the conflict can be prevented with the same values, namely the values that exist in the community itself. The value approach used is the approach that Indonesian society is a plural society, so that differences in views caused by different values are common, including during the election period. This approach can actually be integrated by interested parties (KPU, Bawaslu, Polri, etc.) in preparation for the holding of elections. One way is to carry out this approach during the socialization period before and during the election. Even socialization by applying the Sobural approach would be better if it was carried out long before entering the election period. So that conflict prevention efforts have been made, at least in terms of minimizing the occurrence of conflict. But it should be noted

By writing this article, it can be concluded that conflicts during the election period generally occur due to differences in political views based on differences in values and culture. This difference is then used negatively by some individuals to benefit their position. So a cultural approach is also needed to prevent conflict during the election period. This approach is also recommended to be used in the long term to maximize conflict prevention efforts during the election period in Indonesia. Hopefully the election period in Indonesia can leave more good records.

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